Saving Faith is Confessing Christ
Matthew 16:1-19 (Pastor Heo)
The Demand for a Sign
16:1-12pp — Mk 8:11-21
1 The Pharisees and Sadducees came to Jesus and tested him by asking him to show them a sign from heaven. 2 He replied, “When evening comes, you say, ‘It will be fair weather, for the sky is red,’ 3 and in the morning, ‘Today it will be stormy, for the sky is red and overcast.’ You know how to interpret the appearance of the sky, but you cannot interpret the signs of the times. 4 A wicked and adulterous generation looks for a miraculous sign, but none will be given it except the sign of Jonah.”Jesus then left them and went away.
The Yeast of the Pharisees and Sadducees
5 When they went across the lake, the disciples forgot to take bread. 6 “Be careful,” Jesus said to them. “Be on your guard against the yeast of the Pharisees and Sadducees.” 7 They discussed this among themselves and said, “It is because we didn’t bring any bread.” 8 Aware of their discussion, Jesus asked, “You of little faith, why are you talking among yourselves about having no bread? 9 Do you still not understand? Don’t you remember the five loaves for the five thousand, and how many basketfuls you gathered? 10 Or the seven loaves for the four thousand, and how many basketfuls you gathered? 11 How is it you don’t understand that I was not talking to you about bread? But be on your guard against the yeast of the Pharisees and Sadducees.” 12 Then they understood that he was not telling them to guard against the yeast used in bread, but against the teaching of the Pharisees and Sadducees.
Peter’s Confession of Christ
16:13-16pp — Mk 8:27-29; Lk 9:18-20
13 When Jesus came to the region of Caesarea Philippi, he asked his disciples, “Who do people say the Son of Man is?” 14 They replied, “Some say John the Baptist; others say Elijah; and still others, Jeremiah or one of the prophets.” 15 “But what about you?” he asked. “Who do you say I am?” 16 Simon Peter answered, “You are the Christ, the Son of the living God.” 17 Jesus replied, “Blessed are you, Simon son of Jonah, for this was not revealed to you by man, but by my Father in heaven. 18 And I tell you that you are Peter, and on this rock I will build my church, and the gates of Hades will not overcome it. 19 I will give you the keys of the kingdom of heaven; whatever you bind on earth will be bound in heaven, and whatever you loose on earth will be loosed in heaven.”
Jesus taught the disciples about his crucifixion and upcoming death, but they were slow to catch on.
This whole chapter is all about Faith.
4 Kinds of Faith
- No Faith (v. 1-4) – Challenging Christ
- Little Faith (v. 5-12) –
- Saving Faith (v. 13-19/20) – Confessing Christ
- Serving Faith (v. 21-28) – Following Christ
Sadducees and Pharisees came together and challenged Christ.
Originally, fundamentally, these two were diametrically opposed – totally different in beliefs, policies, and lifestyles.
- Pharisees = traditionalists, conservative, legalists, unbelieving religious party looking for self-righteousness
- Believed in life after death, angel and demons
- Were waiting and hopeful for the Messiah
- Sadducees = political, wealthy, small aristocracy, a collaborationist party that cooperated with the Roman govt to keep their wealth
- Did not
- Were not
These two groups were so totally different, and yet they united so completely to kill and accuse Jesus Christ.
- They didn’t lack evidence, but lacked honesty and humility.
- They were spiritually adulterous and wicked (v. 4)
The sign of Jonah – also previously mentioned in chp 12. In this sign, just as Jonah was 3 days and nights in the belly of the huge fish, so the Son of Man would be in the heart of the earth for 3 days and 3 nights. This is the sign of Jesus’ death and resurrection. This is ENOUGH sign that Jesus is the promised Savior and Lord and King of Kings.
This is ENOUGH sign also for US to believe in Christ.
Parable: Luke 16 – The rich man and the beggar (Lazarus?)
The rich man lived in luxury every day and the beggar laid at his gate. One day, both died. The rich man went to hell. Lazarus went to heaven. This rich man’s name wasn’t written in the Book of Life (so we don’t know it), but Lazarus’ name WAS written there.
The rich man lived on earth for a short time with much – in riches, in luxury. Now, he lives on in hell as a beggar. Lazarus lived on earth for a short time as a beggar, but now lives in heaven in luxury.
The rich man said to Abraham, “Please, send Lazarus to tell my family (5 brothers)!” “No, they have Moses and the Prophets.” “But… if someone comes back from the grave to tell them…” “No, if they didn’t listen to Moses, they won’t listen to Lazarus.”
- We have ENOUGH evidence.
- We have ENOUGH witnesses.
- We have ENOUGH to know.
- Look around at the houses – you don’t know who built them, but there is some kind of evidence that they WERE built and didn’t just “come to exist.”
- Look at the sky – at the stars – there is also some evidence that SOMEONE put them there. If they were not put there by a man, then someone wiser than a man must have.
- Psalm 119? “The heavens declare the glory of God…”
- Romans 1 – ‘Since the beginning of time, God’s power and qualities have been CLEAR and can be understood so that NO ONE can be excused before God.”
#2 – Misunderstanding Christ (Little Faith) – v. 5-12
Spiritual things can be understood by the illumination of the Holy Spirit.
“Oh you of little faith… Don’t you remember the feeding of the 5,000 (Jews) and the 4,000 (Gentiles)? I wasn’t talking about bread, but about the teaching of the Pharisees and Sadducees.”
Jesus left his confrontation with the Ps and Ss and his disciples went with him, but they forgot bread (and worried). Jesus used this opportunity to teach them about the dangers of the Ps and Ss: the “yeast”. Yeast makes bread grow larger and larger. Meaning: Evil influence, evil doctrine.
In the ministry of Jesus on earth, many people misinterpreted the meaning of his words physically, rather than spiritually. Ex: “You must be born again” to Nicodemus. “How is this possible?” Ex 2: “Whoever drinks the water I give him will never thirst, it will become a spring of water welling up to eternal life.” – to the Samaritan woman “Yes, sir! Give me this water so that I don’t have to come to this well again!” Ex 3: “Whoever eats my body and blood will be raised by me at the last day.” – to his disciples “How can we eat him???” Maybe turned away at that point and no longer followed.
Misunderstanding produces little faith. (almost non-faith) – Therefore, “be on your guard” – keep Jesus at the center of your faith.
#3: Saving Faith – Confessing Jesus Christ
At least we must reach THIS level of faith
In the New Testament – this is the first place the word “church” appears (referring to Peter and how Jesus will “build my church upon the Rock”)
Jesus took his disciples to the Gentile territory. Sycerea – near Philippi – it was the center for Baal worship and had many idols. Even the Greek god Pan had its shrines here. When Philip became the ruler here, he named the city Philippi.
Jesus asked “Who do men say I am? Who do you say I am?” Moses, Elijah, John the Baptist, Isaiah – there are similarities
- John the Baptist – STRONG messages – about repentance – “You brood of vipers”
- Elijah – omnipotent?
- Jeremiah – the weeping prophet, also rejected and despised by his own brothers and nation, a man of sorrows and humility and suffering
These answers are all incorrect, this answer cannot save them. “How about you? What do you think?” “Don’t ask me, ‘How about you?’ ask yourself, ‘How about you (me)?’”
Who do people say Jesus is?
We may think this kind of question is silly – but our personal destiny is determined by the answer to this question. The most important question we should ask ourselves throughout our whole lives is “Who is Jesus Christ to me?”
Peter answered: v. 16 “You are the Christ, Son of the Living God.”
Jesus was pleased and said, “You are blessed.”
Even today, if we confess like this, Jesus will say to us, “You are blessed.”
What is the meaning? Christ (Greek word) = Messiah (Hebrew word) = Anointed One
3 offices were anointed by oil in those days:
- Priest (interceding for man to God by prayer),
- Prophet (preaching the Word of God),
- King (overseeing the people of God and leading them)
All the offices of all the men were merely shadows of the ONE man who would fulfill ALL of them – Jesus. Jesus is the perfect fulfillment of God’s self-revelation.
- Romans 8 – “He is interceding for us…”
- Hebrews 1
- Colossians – “All the fullness of the diety in bodily form…”
- Jesus says, “I give you eternal life – no one can snatch you out of my hands…”
- Jesus says continually (v. 17) – “Blessed are you Simon Peter, for this was not revealed to you by man but by God my Father.”
We don’t learn and understand about Jesus through our own personal investigation – it is only through the ministry of the Holy Spirit that we can get to know him and believe in him.
“On this Rock, I will build my church.”
Who/what is the Rock? NOT Peter himself.
The Rock = a symbol of God (repeated many times in the OT) – this Rock is Jesus Christ himself and the confession of believers who say “You are the Christ and the Son of the Living God.”
Jesus doesn’t say, “I will build your church” nor “you will build my church” but rather “I will build MY church.” The builder, founder, top-line AND bottom-line of the church (the head pastor) IS Jesus Christ alone. And anyone who confesses Christ as Savior and King is a living STONE that builds HIS church.
What is the church? (this is the first appearance of this word in the NT)
- Ecclesia – Ec = out of; clesia = congregation/ assembly/ gathering
- Ecclesia = “calling the people of God OUT of this world to establish the Kingdom of God IN this unholy world”
The gates of Hell (Hades) will never overcome it. (Not Peter, the church). Gates = symbol of power, Hades = symbol of death. This will never overcome the church because JESUS is the holder of the keys and the builder of the church.
“I give you the keys to the Kingdom of Heaven.” Do you have this key in your pocket?
Jesus (continual truth-teller) says “You have the keys, whatever you bind/loose on earth will be bound/loosed in heaven.”
Today, Jesus is giving this key (the key of salvation) to the church. Jesus died for the church and then trusts the church to open or close the gates of the Kingdom of Heaven. Since his death to his Second Coming = the “Church Age”. During this Church Age, the timeless truth = it is the ONLY church in this age. There are many “institutions” (schools, govts, etc) in this world – but Jesus only died for ONE and only gives the responsibility and power to ONE – the church, his church.
If we confess Jesus Christ as our Savior and Lord and King “You are the Christ, Son of the Living God” then you ARE the church – a member, a living/working stone in this church.
Jesus says, “I will give you the keys to the Kingdom of Heaven…”
May God bless us with his blessing upon the church.
Bless us with Jesus’ living voice.
John 11:25-26 – Memory Verse on the bulletin cover.
Previously, Jesus raised Lazarus after 4 days and smelling badly. Jesus called to him in a loud voice “COME OUT!” And he came out still bound by his grave clothes. “Take off those dead clothes, let him go – I give him new life, new chance, new opportunity.”
Today is the continuation.
What a BIG difference!
Chp 11 – Death, bad smell, funeral.
Chp 12 – Life, table, fellowship, reclining, excellent smell.
We have something to learn from every person. Mary, Martha, Judas. But, let us focus on the story of Lazarus. He is one of the key people in the book of John.
Raising Lazarus from death to life is the GREATEST of all of Jesus’ miracles on earth. Why is it so important? Today, Lazarus is not here, but with God in heaven.
At that time, Jesus raised Lazarus to proclaim a timeless truth for them and for coming generations. John 11:25-26.
Lazarus’ Story is the visible picture of the invisible story of children of God today. If we are saved, yours is Lazarus’ Story.
Jesus is the same yesterday, today, and tomorrow. Jesus is UNchanging in changing something bad in your life.
9 common themes between Lazarus and you (things Jesus does in your life).
#1 – Lazarus was DEAD when he was away from Jesus, with a bad smell, making others sad. Nobody ever lived in the absence of Jesus Christ. At the same time nobody ever died in the presence of Jesus Christ.
When we were far from Christ, we were completely dead. Even Christians say, “At that time, I almost died! I should have died! But because of Jesus, I do not need to die!” NO NO NO. We WERE completely DEAD at that time! Not ALMOST dead! (Ephesians 2:1)
No dead person died more than another dead person. No difference in death. But one dead person can smell worse than other dead people. We WERE ALL dead! We were all stinky! We were all shameful.
#2 – Even though Lazarus was dead, making a bad smell, Jesus loved him so much – personally, individually.
Like this, even when we were totally dead, smelling badly, harming others, God loved each of us individually, personally (John 3:16).
(Eph 3:18-19) How wide, how long, how deep is the love of Christ. The width, height, depth, length of his love is far beyond our understanding – even if we study our whole lives.
Jesus knew us each by name, before birth, before Creation.
#3 – Lazarus was raised from death. He did NOTHING to rise from death. Only, he smelled badly, made others sad. He was totally hopeless, helpless, useless. He did not/could not go to Jesus and ask him to save him. But Jesus CAME to Bethany to save him.
Likewise, Jesus CAME to Earth to save us.
Jesus approached the entrance of the tomb and called “Lazarus!”
Likewise, Jesus approached our hearts and calls “Aaron!” (Rev 3:23).
Romans? It is by grace you have been saved…
How long have you been Christian?
If you say, “Oh yeah! I did it!” to be saved, it SHOWS you are still NOT saved by his grace.
At that time, we were totally, totally powerless, and helpless. We are saved by Jesus power ALONE! All things necessary to raise Lazarus, Jesus did.
#4 – After being raised, Lazarus had immediate, intimate fellowship with Jesus. (v. 2) even reclining with Jesus, fellowshipping at the table.
Likewise, we have immediate, intimate, personal fellowship with Jesus after he saves us.
Jesus does not say, “Oh, no problem, it’s my job” and walks away. No, they became more intimate, more close. We have an unbreakable spiritual union for eternity with Jesus. (Eph. 2:6)
If you are saved, do you know where you are NOW? You are IN heaven NOW, with Jesus! Our real identity is in heaven with Jesus NOW! Even if you don’t understand, believe!
Predestined – called – justified – glorified!
We can therefore believe that God is always working for the good of those that love him! (Romans 8:28).
When did God love you? Predestine you? Call you? Foreknew you? Justified you? Glorified you? Sometime before Creation, he predestined us. In our lifetimes, he has called us. In the future, he HAS glorified us. This is human understanding of the sequence of events.
But, in God’s time, ALL happened in the same time.
In our understanding, we WILL be glorified in the future with Christ. In God’s time, we already ARE.
#5 – After new life, it’s still life. It is impossible, unthinkable for Lazarus to return to the same tomb with the same bad smell. Totally impossible!
Our salvation does not guarantee always safe, easy ways, sinless ways. BUT, no matter what we face, narrow ways, difficulties, suffering, it is IMPOSSIBLE to be saved and then lost again and go back to being dead.
Jesus says, “I give you eternal life – you will NEVER perish – NEVER be condemned – you have already crossed over from death to life.” From this place, we can never again cross from eternal life back to death.
#6 – Among Jesus’ miracles, this miracle is the culmination of all miracles! To Lazarus personally, this experience was the greatest turning point in his whole life. This was the miracle of miracles to Lazarus. Before and after, Lazarus never experienced anything greater than this.
The world is divided – not by war, not religion, not politics, but by JESUS. (BC – AD).
The Bible is divided – not by Abram, not Moses, not David, but by JESUS. (OT – NT)
Our lives are divided – not by suffering, not by hardship, but by JESUS.
“If anyone is in Christ, he is a new creation! The old has gone, the new has come!”
If somebody never meets Jesus in his whole life, no matter how much he works, there is no life.
If somebody meets Jesus ONLY ONCE, no matter how short his life, there is life.
#7 – Lazarus got new life by changing nothing – no payment.
Lazarus had nothing to lose, nothing to complain about.
Likewise, if we are saved really, we have NOTHING to lose, nothing to complain about!
Why do people worry, fear, be troubled and dismayed?
We do it to NOT lose something. Bible COMMANDS us to not fear (Joshua 1) and not worry (Luke 6?)
We actually have NOTHING to lose on this earth! Even if we lose everything on this earth, it means we get the best thing~
#8 – Be blessed in this. There is yet persecution. (v. 10)
Chief priests decided to try to kill Lazarus, even before Jesus.
Killing the body is the highest persecution on earth – there is none greater.
When Lazarus was dead, nobody tried to kill him, nobody persecuted him. The fact that somebody tried to kill him means, he was alive.
If somebody hates you, persecutes you, makes you suffer, it means you are alive! Hallelujah~
If there is trouble from Satan, it means, you are alive! Spiritually alive!
2 Timothy 2:3 – In fact, everyone who wants to be like Jesus, will have trouble.
Matthew 23:16? – In this world, you will have troubles of many kinds, but take heart, I have overcome this world!
“If this world hates you, this world hated me first. You do not belong to this world because I have chosen you out of this world.”
Persecution because of Jesus Christ is a wonderful blessing! In heaven.
#9 – Lazarus became automatically, willingly, a living witness of Jesus’ life-giving power. (v.9,11).
Many people, everyone! Knew what had happened to Lazarus, so everyone came to see!
Challenge: If you are saved, from that time up to now, how many are saved because of your life? Because of your life change? How many came to church, came to God, came to heaven, because of you?
For Lazarus, it was IMPOSSIBLE to go on living without testifying, talking about it.
Imagine: In April, 100 years ago, if you were in the Titanic, on that terrible night. You ALMOST died, but were SO lucky to survive. Would it be possible to live afterward without witnessing about it? Testifying about it? No way!
But all those who came before, Titanic survivors, Lazarus, are gone now. Ours is much greater because it is NOW!
September 11, if you were sleeping on the 100th story of the World Trade Tower in New York. The whole tower collapsed! You were SO lucky, blessed, to be alive – completely uninjured. After that, would it be possible to live the next life without talking about it? NO WAY!
Our salvation experience is so much MORE powerful than these! It is the miracle of miracles we can experience in this life!
Acts 1? – When the Spirit comes on you, you will receive power. You will be witnesses.
Today’s story = Jesus raised a dead man after 4 days!
Lazarus, brother, Mary & Martha, sisters.
Lazarus = a KEY person in John’s book.
Lazarus, Jesus, John the Baptist, Mary Magdalene, Mary the mother of Jesus.
His family stories are repeated many times (10-15?)
This was not the last miracle before Jesus’ cross, but it was the one that aroused the MOST anger from his enemies.
This is the MOST climactic miracle in his earthly ministry.
Lazarus has been in the tomb 4 days. This miracle could not be denied.
If Jesus cannot do anything about death, then whatever else (miracles) he can do, amount to nothing.
If we only have hope in Jesus in this life, we are to be pitied above all men (1 Cor. 15).
The story does not start with Lazarus’ death, but his sickness.
v.1 He was sick.
Sisters sent a short, urgent message to Jesus. This is enough for Jesus to understand fully.
They, the sisters, expected IMMEDIATE action to spare them grief. Jesus should have done something quickly, on their expectation because they loved each other so much. They were Jesus’ close friends. Plus, Lazarus was nearby.
Jesus did nothing, only said, “This sickness is for God’s glory.”
4 days, he was in the tomb.
Day 1 – Messenger arrived with message, same day, Lazarus died, lay dead in the tomb.
Day 2 – returned to Bethany, Jesus stayed.
Day 3 – Jesus stayed.
Day 4 – Jesus departed and arrived.
Martha saw him, “IF you had been here, he would not have died!” (v. 21)
Mary (v. 33) “IF you had been here, he would not have died!”
Why did you come so late? Why not earlier?
Because you came late, my brother died. This is mixed and complicated feeling of two sisters. Complaining, despair, still trusting, hope, lots of emotion.
Sickness – even death – does not indicate that God has rejected you.
Remind ourselves that we are not exempt from the pain, sufferings, and difficulties in this world.
We do not have a different life in this world. But, we can experience life differently – through our hope in Jesus.
Our hope does not isolate us from this world’s difficulties.
But, our hope does provide us a way through these difficulties to make us more humble, compassionate, strong, for others.
First lesson – Wait.
Jesus’ delay had a specific purpose. This was God’s timing.
Sometimes we think, He is not listening, He is not answering, He is not doing what we want.
But, God meets all our needs according to HIS plan and purpose, for HIS glory.
Second lesson – Timing.
Sometimes, we offer passionate prayer of need and God answers quickly, and we are excited! Our faith is strengthened!
Other times, it seems God may never answer…Even in our whole lifetimes…
Sometimes we “waste” many, many years only to see God answer our prayers in a different way.
Sometimes, God’s answer is “no.”
In whatever case, God’s timing and answer is perfect and best!
Trust in the Lord with all your heart, and lean not on your own understanding…
In all things God works for the good of those who love him, who have been called according to his purpose. Man plans his way in his heart, but God directs his paths.
Jesus, “IF you believe, you would see the glory of God.”
Key word – Faith
Key word – Glory
Worldly principle – “Seeing is believing.” Spiritual principle – “Believing is seeing.”
How can we glorify God in our sufferings, trials?
Whatever you do, do it all to the glory of God (Col?)
Sufferings, trials, give us patience, perseverance, develops our Christian character (hope).
Romans 5:2 – we rejoice in our sufferings…
James 1:2 – Consider it pure joy whenever you face trials of many kinds…
Perseverance must finish its work so that we will be complete.
Suffering provides the encouragement of dependence on God to others. It helps us be free from worldly things when we focus our eyes on God for help. Sometimes it makes our desire for God, for eternity with him, stronger.
Lesson three – Jesus = person, God = person
A person’s treatment of another person is PERSONAL.
Jesus’ response to YOU is personal.
Matthew 8 – Centurion asked Jesus for help for his servant. Jesus said, “I will go.” Centurion said, “Not necessary, just say the word.” Jesus, “OK.”
John 4 – Royal official came to Jesus and said, “My son is sick.”
Jesus did not say, “I will go” but rather, “YOU may go, he is alive.”
John 11 – Lazarus died. Jesus waited.
Different way of handling each person, but it produced the BEST result for each person. Because Jesus’ response to YOU is personal.
“My testimony” will not be standard, the same, as other people’s.
v.35 – Jesus wept…(shortest verse in the Bible – possibly the most powerful, deepest…)
WHY weep? He KNEW He would raise Lazarus soon. He KNEW he would die on the cross as well as shed his tears.
Jesus wept – shows the humanity of our Savior. He entered ALL of human experience. He knew, He knows exactly how we feel. He has experienced ALL things we do, in a deeper way.
Isaiah 53:3? Jesus is a man of sorrow.
Hebrews 5:7 – summary of Jesus earthly life.
During his life, he offered up loud prayers and tears to God. He was heard because of reverent submission.
Nowhere, “Jesus laughed.”
Many times, “Jesus wept.” Luke – “Jesus wept” over Jerusalem
“Blessed are you who weep now, you will laugh later. But cursed are you who laugh now, you will weep.”
Did Jesus weep to make us laugh?
So, we also must weep to make someone laugh. Also, to make Jesus laugh.
Are you ready to weep to make Jesus laugh?
Your family, husband, wife, children, parents, can you weep for them?
A good example of this = Paul.
Whenever he saw Christ, he was full of joy – NO MATTER the circumstances – even in prison – and death. “I will rejoice in the Lord.”
Rejoicing is not emotion – but a matter of will.
“Rejoice, rejoice, I saw again rejoice.”
Whenever he saw the lost, he wept. “I have unceasing anguish in my heart…”
If we have joy in our own salvation, we can weep for others’ salvation.
v. 41 – 44
Key verses, v. 25, 26
Lazarus is not on earth, but in heaven. So why raise Lazarus? To proclaim v. 25, 26 for us.
Key verses – memorize them – v. 25,26 All day today, meditate on these verses.
“I AM the resurrection and the life. He who believes in me will live, even though he dies…Do you believe this?”
Do you believe? Can you draw this picture in your mind?
Lazarus body was already smelly, decaying, but Jesus called in a LOUD voice, “Lazarus, come out!”
And the dead man came out in his grave clothes (mummy?)
New flesh, new body, new bone – all restored. Even the dead hears Jesus’ voice. IF Jesus said, “The dead! Come out!” Then ALL would be resurrected.
Jesus voice is living, powerful, absolute, even the dead hear it.
1 Thess 4:16-17 – Key verses
Very important connection to these verses.
“On that day, the Lord Jesus will come down with a loud trumpet, loud voice, and the dead in Christ will rise first, and those who are alive will be caught up in the clouds to meet them, and we will be with the Lord forever.”
v. 25 – “I am the resurrection and the life”
1 Thess “On that day…”
Jesus = resurrection for the dead
Jesus = life for the living
But, we need not only concern ourselves with THAT day, but also THIS day.
Natural death is sleeping before God – waiting for our bodies to be raised. Even, our natural sleeping is a kind of death – a death exercise before God. Nobody can get up unless God provides the power to get up.
Who got up this morning?
Every morning you get up. Even though we get up, it’s not by accident. We got up this morning by the grace of God, by the power of Jesus’ resurrection.
Jesus says, “Apart from me, you can do NOTHING.”
Our hearts beat not by accident, because God makes them beat.
If God stops his working for making our hearts beating, our hearts will stop. Everyday is a new GIFT from God. Every morning we start with new mercies (Lamentations 3?)
If we start every morning with Jesus’ resurrection power and life joy, why not live the WHOLE day with this power and joy?
“I am the resurrection and the LIFE!”