1 Samuel is a Book of Transition (1:1-28, 13:14, 15:22)

November 8, 2015

Book: 1 Samuel

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1 Samuel is a Book of Transition

1:1-28, 13:14, 15:22 (Pastor Heo)

The Birth of Samuel

1 There was a certain man from Ramathaim, a Zuphite from the hill country of Ephraim, whose name was Elkanah son of Jeroham, the son of Elihu, the son of Tohu, the son of Zuph, an Ephraimite. 2 He had two wives; one was called Hannah and the other Peninnah. Peninnah had children, but Hannah had none. 3 Year after year this man went up from his town to worship and sacrifice to the LORD Almighty at Shiloh, where Hophni and Phinehas, the two sons of Eli, were priests of the LORD.

4 Whenever the day came for Elkanah to sacrifice, he would give portions of the meat to his wife Peninnah and to all her sons and daughters. 5 But to Hannah he gave a double portion because he loved her, and the LORD had closed her womb. 6 And because the LORD had closed her womb, her rival kept provoking her in order to irritate her. 7 This went on year after year. Whenever Hannah went up to the house of the LORD, her rival provoked her till she wept and would not eat. 8 Elkanah her husband would say to her, “Hannah, why are you weeping? Why don’t you eat? Why are you downhearted? Don’t I mean more to you than ten sons?” 9 Once when they had finished eating and drinking in Shiloh, Hannah stood up. Now Eli the priest was sitting on a chair by the doorpost of the LORD’s temple. 10 In bitterness of soul Hannah wept much and prayed to the LORD. 11 And she made a vow, saying, “O LORD Almighty, if you will only look upon your servant’s misery and remember me, and not forget your servant but give her a son, then I will give him to the LORD for all the days of his life, and no razor will ever be used on his head.” 12 As she kept on praying to the LORD, Eli observed her mouth. 13 Hannah was praying in her heart, and her lips were moving but her voice was not heard. Eli thought she was drunk 14 and said to her, “How long will you keep on getting drunk? Get rid of your wine.” 15 “Not so, my lord,” Hannah replied, “I am a woman who is deeply troubled. I have not been drinking wine or beer; I was pouring out my soul to the LORD. 16 Do not take your servant for a wicked woman; I have been praying here out of my great anguish and grief.” 17 Eli answered, “Go in peace, and may the God of Israel grant you what you have asked of him.” 18 She said, “May your servant find favor in your eyes.” Then she went her way and ate something, and her face was no longer downcast. 19 Early the next morning they arose and worshiped before the LORD and then went back to their home at Ramah. Elkanah lay with Hannah his wife, and the LORD remembered her. 20 So in the course of time Hannah conceived and gave birth to a son. She named him Samuel, saying, “Because I asked the LORD for him.”

Hannah Dedicates Samuel

21 When the man Elkanah went up with all his family to offer the annual sacrifice to the LORD and to fulfill his vow, 22 Hannah did not go. She said to her husband, “After the boy is weaned, I will take him and present him before the LORD, and he will live there always.” 23 “Do what seems best to you,” Elkanah her husband told her. “Stay here until you have weaned him; only may the LORD make good his word.” So the woman stayed at home and nursed her son until she had weaned him. 24 After he was weaned, she took the boy with her, young as he was, along with a three-year-old bull, an ephah of flour and a skin of wine, and brought him to the house of the LORD at Shiloh. 25 When they had slaughtered the bull, they brought the boy to Eli, 26 and she said to him, “As surely as you live, my lord, I am the woman who stood here beside you praying to the LORD. 27 I prayed for this child, and the LORD has granted me what I asked of him. 28 So now I give him to the LORD. For his whole life he will be given over to the LORD.” And he worshiped the LORD there.

14 But now your kingdom will not endure; the LORD has sought out a man after his own heart and appointed him leader of his people, because you have not kept the LORD’s command.”

22 But Samuel replied: “Does the LORD delight in burnt offerings and sacrifices as much as in obeying the voice of the LORD? To obey is better than sacrifice, and to heed is better than the fat of rams.

This is a book of transition – from Judges to Kings.

There are three prominent characters:

  1. Samuel,
  2. Saul,
  3. David

This shows the transition:

  1. from Samuel (the last judge)
  2. to Saul (the first king)
  3. to David (the greatest king).

Samuel is a “king-maker” – he anointed Saul and David – the first two kings and also renewed the Law of the Lord in Israel.

These two books (1,2 Samuel) are ONE book in the original Bible, but it was divided into 2 books through translated Bibles.

  • “Septusion” = the oldest Greek version
  • “Bolgate” = Latin version of the whole Bible

In these translations, this ONE book is divided into two parts.

Actually, the writer is anonymous (can’t be Samuel totally – he dies in chp. 25). He may have written SOME of the book, but also Nathan and Gad are said to have written some of this.

1 Samuel = 31 chapters and covers almost 100 years – from birth of Samuel – death of Saul.

The THEME: faithfulness to God = success, blessing, peace; disobedience = disaster, final distruction

This is stated clearly to Eli in chp 2:30 “I will honor those who honor me, but treat with contempt those who despise me.”


Late in the turbulent time of Judges when Elijah was priest/judge. There was a man named Elkanah from Ephraim – and he had two (rival) wives.

Peninnah made Hannah cry (often) because she had no children, so Hannah cried out to God for a son and he opened her womb.

She had a son and sent him to Eli for training (who himself was not a good priest – his own 2 sons were totally wicked).

One night, God called Samuel, so he ran to Eli and said, “Here I am.” Up to three times this happened, but Eli did not call him. Then, at that time, Eli realized that God was calling the boy – “if he calls again, say, ‘speak, your servant is listening.’”

On the fourth time, Samuel answered God and God told him that he would destroy Eli and his family because of their wickedness. Later, in the battle against the Philistines, the 2 sons were killed, the Ark of the Covenant was captured, and the Israelites lost. Eli heard this, fell from his chair, and snapped his neck (died).

Samuel became judge then, and later Israel defeated the Philistines, and all was renewed and restored and they had peace.

Samuel later appointed his 2 sons as judge, but the people rejected this idea (they were not like him). The people said, “give us a king like all the other nations around us!”

God and Samuel were not happy, but God said, “fine, let them have it. They have not rejected you, but me as king. Tell them what will happen to them under the rule of a king (they’ll be slaves).”

People said, “we don’t care.”

So… Samuel anointed the first king Saul as king over Israel (he was tall, dark, and handsome, – also he began in meekness and humility – but soon he became a bad dude).


He presumed the right of priest – one time, in a battle, the people were scattered, but Samuel did not arrive quickly – so Saul impatiently offered a burnt offering to the LORD as a priest himself. Samuel said, “What have you done?” Saul made excuses, “no, no, no, it’s like this, you see. You’re to blame actually.”

Samuel said, “You fool! You haven’t kept the commands of God. Your kingdom will not stand forever. It will end soon.”

KEY VERSE: 1 Samuel 13:14

This was the first (major) fault of Saul.

Later, they fought the Amalekites (also Exodus 17:16 – they fought these people immediately after they left Egypt) – spiritually, the Amalekites represent Satan, his demons, and their works – “God will fight them from generation to generation.”

So, the Israelites were told to DESTROY THEM ALL – yet, Saul disobeyed. He spared the best, richest, most wonderful. Samuel arrived and Saul said, “Mission Accomplished.” and Samuel said, “Oh, really? So, what is that bleating sound I hear?” Saul, “Oh, nothing, just a little present for YOUR God (not my God).”

KEY VERSE 15:22 “To obey is better than sacrifice.”

Samuel said to Saul, “because you rejected the command of God, God rejected you.” And he mourned for Saul – and they never met again until they died. God also grieved and was sad he made Saul king.

Next, Samuel anointed David king over Israel (while Saul is still king – bad news).

Chp 17, David vs. Goliath “Ralley in the Valley”

Philistine champion Goliath came out and shouted “Yo! Fight me boys! You look like children!~ Come on out! Your God must be a baby like you too!” He shouted like this for 40 days every morning and evening.

David’s elder brothers were all there, and many soldiers, trembling with fear.

Goliath was 9ft tall (almost as tall as an NBA basketball hoop).

Jesse sent David with some bread to see how his brothers were doing. David arrived and saw and heard this abomination. He couldn’t control himself and he said, “Yo! Let me at ‘im!”

He took a stick and stones (and sling) to fight the giant. Goliath said, “Am I a dog? Wanna play fetch?” David said, “You’re such a BIG guy, but I come with a much BIGGER guy at my back! My LORD will give you to me! And I will cut off your head and I will give your body to the birds and beasts – so the WHOLE WORLD will know the name of the TRUE GOD.” He won.

Because of this, David became a high ranking officer in Saul’s army – and WHATEVER Saul sent him to do, he did successfully. So…. the ladies loved him and sang songs, “Saul killed 1,000s, David killed 10,000s!” – uh oh David is 10x cooler than Saul? Angry face.

From then Saul kept his jealous face on David – and tried several times to kill him. Even when David was playing harp for Saul (to calm his internal demons), Saul tried to throw a spear at him and KILL him.

Saul’s daughter Mical wanted to marry David so badly, so Saul said, “OK, cool. Wedding gift for me: kill 1,000 Philistines and bring me their foreskins.” He won.

Even later, Saul ordered his son Jonathan (David’s BFF) to kill David.

Finally, David just escaped until Saul died – but until his death, he continuously did his best to kill David.

You know… David had numerous times to repay Saul evil-for-evil, but he didn’t. He chased him with 3,000 men, and entered a cave for rest (David and his men were far back in the SAME cave).

  • David’s men said, “Wow! God’s provision has delivered your enemy into your hands! Let’s kill him!”
  • Yet, David only came out and cut off a portion of his robe.
  • Then, his conscience got the best of him and he yelled back, “My lord! I have a piece of your robe! Please stop trying to kill me! I could have killed you!”
  • Yet, Saul continued trying to kill him.

Later, in the last chapter, in a battle, all the members around Saul were killed, and he as well. This is the end of 1 Samuel.

What can we learn from this terrible story? Esp from Saul:

#1: The START is important, the END is more important

Yes, Saul STARTED well – but he FINISHED terribly.

Yes, the FIRST day is very important – but remember that the LAST day is even MORE important. (Job, career, relationship, money, house, possessions, marriage, family, etc)

Paul confessed “I have fought the good fight, I have finished the race, I have kept the faith. So now, there is in store for me the crown of righteousness.”

We must CONTINUE to fight the GOOD fight with humility and faithfulness to God.

#2: To Avenge is not MY job, but God’s

Do you have enemies? You may – but look at Saul and David. David did not think Saul was his enemy but Saul thought so.

1 Cor 12:19 “Do not take revenge, but leave room for God’s vengeance. For it is written, ‘It is mine to avenge.’ If he his thirsty, give him something to drink, for by doing so you will heap burning coals on his head. Repay evil with good.”

1 Peter “To this, we were called, because Jesus left us an example to follow. There was no deceit in his mouth, when he suffered he did not make threats, instead he fully entrusted himself to the God who judges justly.” Jesus bore our sins on the tree so that we might live for righteousness.

“By his wounds we are healed” (Isaiah 53?)

Two types of Jesus Christ here:

  1. Samuel
  2. David
  • Samuel = (first) prophet, priest, (last) judge – he was highly respected and brought in a NEW AGE to the people of God.
  • Jesus = prophet, priest, judge – brings a NEW AGE to the people of God. “If anyone is in Christ, he is a new creation. The old is gone, the new has come.”

We receive a new spirit, new heart in Christ.

  • David = a primary, prominent portrayal of the person of Christ – anointed king, he became the forerunner of the Messianic king – he was the greatest king in Israel’s history. – born in Bethlehem, worked as a shepherd
  • Jesus = king, born in Bethlehem, IS our shepherd “I lay down my life for my sheep. I know my sheep and they know my voice.” David = “The Lord is my shepherd…” (Ps. 23)

New Testament (Matthew 1:1 “A record of the genealogy of Jesus Christ, son of DAVID, son of Abraham…”)

2 Samuel = David’s kingly reign (compare to Jesus’ kingdom) – later

Another theme of 1 Samuel =


  1. Faithfulness and obedience to God brings blessing, success, peace;
  2. FaithLESSness = disaster, destruction

Let’s pray.

<20151108 전주안디옥교회 AICF 허재범 목사님>

사무엘 상 (리더십의) 변화 변천의 책

1:1-28 1. 에브라임 산지 라마다임소빔에 에브라임 사람 엘가나라 하는 사람이 있었으니 그는 여로함의 아들이요 엘리후의 손자요 도후의 증손이요 숩의 현손이더라.

13:14 지금은 왕의 나라가 길지 못할 것이라 여호와께서 왕에게 명령하신 바를 왕이 지키지 아니 하였으므로 여호와께서 그의 마음에 맞는 사람을 구하여 여호와께서 그를 그의 백성의 지도자로 삼으셨느니라 하고

15:22 사무엘이 이르되 여호와께서 번제와 다른 제사를 그의 목소리를 청종하는 것을 좋아하심 같이 좋아하시겠나이까 순종이 제사보다 낫고 듣는 것이 숫양의 기름보다 나으니

사무엘 상은 재판관(사사)들이 다스리던 시대에서 왕으로 전환되는 큰 전환점입니다.

세가지 변화는

  1. 제사장 엘리 -> 제사장 사무엘
  2. 사무엘 -> 사울왕
  3. 사울왕 -> 다윗왕

사무엘 상하는 개인의 이름을 따서 지은 책입니다. 사무엘은 왕을 (하나님의 심부름으로 )기름부은 사람이며 다윗도 왕이 될거라고 이야기 한 사람입니다. 사무엘 상하는 원래 하나의 책이었습니다. 그 책은 통역된 성경이 나올 때 2권으로 나뉘었습니다. 써투전(Septugion) 그릭어로 번역된 성경, 라틴어로 번역된 성경은 벌게이트(Bolgate)입니다.

저자는 알려지지 않았습니다. 사무엘이 이 책을 쓰지 않은 이유는 사무엘 상 25장에서 사무엘이 죽었기 때문입니다. 엘리가 제사장이자 사사로 있을 때 엘가나라고 하는 에브라임 사람이 있었습니다. 그에게는 두 부인이 있었는데 브닌나와 한나였습니다. 브닌나에게는 아들 딸들이 있었으나 한나에게는 없었습니다. 엘가나는 제사를 드리고 나서 제물과 분깃을 그의 아내 브닌나에게 주고 한나를 더 사랑하여 그에게 갑절을 더 주었습니다.

그 당시 제사장이었던 엘리는 충성스런 사사가 아니였고 영적 어둠의 시대에 있던 사람이었습니다. 한나가 여호와 앞에 슬퍼하며 기도하고 나서 아이를 주시면 여호와께 드리겠다고하고 아이가 생기자 젖을 때고나서 제사장엘리에게 데려갑니다. 어느날 하나님이 사무엘을 부르셨습니다. 사무엘은 제사장 엘리가 부르는 줄 알고 달려가 “부르셨습니까 제사장님” 했습니다. 그러나 엘리는 2번이나 부르지 않았다고 했습니다. 세번째 사무엘이 엘리 앞에 왔을 때 엘리는 하나님이 사무엘을 부르신 것인 줄 알았습니다. 사무엘에게 또 부르는 소리가 들리거든 “예 여호와여 말씀 하옵소서 주의 종이 듣겠나이다”하라 하십니다. 그러자 네번째 부르신 하나님은 사무엘에게 엘리제사장과 그의 가족을 파멸시킬 것이라 말씀하십니다. 실제로 블레셋과 싸울 때 엘리의 두 아들이 전쟁에서 죽임을 당하고 언약괘을 블레셋에게 빼앗기게 됩니다. 이 소식은 들은 엘리는 의자에 앉아있다가 뒤로 넘어져 죽게 됩니다. 이 때부터 사무엘이 다스리게 되며 이스라엘과 블레셋 사람들은 평화롭게 지냅니다.

한데 사무엘이 늙었을 때 사무엘의 두 아들이 사무엘과 같지 않자 사람들은 사무엘에게 와서 왕을 달라고 요구합니다. 사무엘은 슬펐고 하나님도 기쁘시지 않았습니다. 그들이 너(사무엘)을 버림이 아니요 나를 버려 왕이 되지 못하게 하는 도다 하십니다. 사무엘에게 백성들에게 경고하라고 이르십니다. 왕이 그들을 다스릴 것이며 아들들을 데려다가 병거를 어거하게 하고 딸들을 데려다가 향료만들고 떡굽게 할 것이고 너희 노비를 끌어다가 자기의 일을 시킬것이라고 경고하라고 하시지만 백성들은 그래도 왕이 있어야 하겠다고 합니다.

사울왕응 첫번째 왕으로 기름부음 받았습니다. 겸손하고 온유한 사람이었습니다. 그러나 곧 하나님의 명령을 어기는 왕이 됩니다. 사울이 블레셋과 싸울 때 길갈에서 백성들과 사무엘을 기다리다 이레동안 기다려도 오지 않아서 백성들이 흩어지자 사울이 화목제로 그냥 번제를 드립니다. 사무엘이 와서 여호와의 명령을 어긴 왕을 책망합니다. 제사장의 역할을 대신한 것입니다. 사무엘이 책망하자 사무엘은 내가 여호와의 은혜를 구하려 했다고 말합니다. 그러나 사무엘은 왕이 인내하지 못하고 하나님의 명령을 어긴것을 말하며 주요 구절인 13:14″지금은 왕의 나라가 길지 못할 것이라 여호와께서 왕에게 명령하신 바를 왕이 지키지 아니 하였으므로 여호와께서 그의 마음에 맞는 사람을 구하여 여호와께서 그를 그의 백성의 지도자로 삼으셨느니라 하고.”

두번째 사울왕의 하나님의 명령에 불순종입 니다.

이스라엘이 출애굽할 때 처음 대적한 아말렉족을 하나님이 치라고 하셨으며 그를 칠 때 그들의 모든 소유를 남기지 말고 진멸하되 모든 남자와 여자 동물들을 까지 진멸하라고 사무엘이 사울에게 전합니다. 전쟁에서 승리한 후 사울이 사무엘에게 하나님의 말씀에 순종했다고 하자 사무엘이 내 귀에 들리는 이 짐승들의 소리는 무엇이냐고 합니다. 내가 여호와 하나님께 가장 좋은 것으로 드리려고 진멸하지 않았노라고 합니다. 그러자 주요구절 15:22″사무엘이 이르되 여호와께서 번제와 다른 제사를 그의 목소리를 청종하는 것을 좋아하심같이 좋아하겠나이까 순종이 제사보다 낫고 듣는 것이 숫양의 기름보다 나으니” 사무엘은 사울왕이 하나님을 버렸고 하나님도 사울왕을 버릴 것이라고 합니다. 사무엘을 하나님의 뜻에 따라 다윗에게 기름붓습니다.

블레셋사람들은 저쪽언덕에 이스라엘 사람들은 이쪽 언덕에 엘라 골짜기에 대치하고 있을 때, 키가 9피트 (여섯규빗 한뼘)…(약 266.4cm하고 한뼘이나 더 되는..)골리앗이 40일 동안이나 이스라엘 군대를 향하여 나와 싸워서 나를 죽이면 우리가 이스라엘의 종이되고 만일 그를 죽이면 너희가 우리의 종이 되어 우리를 섬길것이다. 하고 이스라엘의 하나님은 아기 같아서 싸울 수 없느냐고 조롱하는데 형들에게 빵을 전하려고 전장터에 온 다윗이 그 말을 듣고 자신도 모르게 내가 싸우겠노라고 말합니다. 그가 물매돌을 가지고 나오자 골리앗은 네가 나를 개로 알아서 막대기를 가지고 오냐며 놀립니다. 다윗은 내가 너를 쳐서 너의 목을 베고 블레셋 군대의 시체를 오늘 공중의 새와 땅의 들짐승에게 주어 온 땅으로 이스라엘에 하나님이 계신줄 알게 하겠다고 합니다.

다윗이 골리앗을 죽이고 이스라엘은 큰 승리를 거둡니다. 사울이 다윗에게 어떤 전쟁을 시키든 다윗을 승리를 가지고 왔습니다.그런데 사울이 다윗이 블레셋 사람들을 죽이고 돌아올 때 여인들이 부르는 노래를 들었습니다. “사울이 죽인자는 천천이요 다윗는 만만이로다” 사울은 다윗을 죽이겠다는 결심을 하고 이때부터 다윗을 죽이려는 모든 노력을 기울입니다. 한번은 사울의 딸 미갈이 다윗을 좋아한다는 말을 듣고 좋은 구실이다 싶어서 사위가 되려면 블레셋 사람을 이백명을 죽이고 포피를 가져오라고 해서 블레셋 사람의 미움을 받고 죽을 위기에 처하길 바라지만 다윗은 그때에도 승리하여 포피를 사울에게 가져옵니다. 사울이 다윗을 죽이려 하지만 사울의 아들 요나단은 그것을 알고 죽을 때 까지 다윗을 보호합니다.

다윗은 억울하게 죽이려는 사울에게 2번이나 복수할 기회가 있었지만 악을 악으로 갚지 않았습니다. 다윗이 있다는 들판에 3천명이나 되는군사를 데리고 죽이러 갔을 때 피곤한 사울왕이 동굴에 들어가서 잠이 들었을 때 다윗가 그 부하가 동굴에서 그것을 발견하였지만 다윗은 죽이자는 부하의 의견을 반대하고 사울의 옷자락만 살짝 베어냅니다. 그리고 사울이 동굴에서 나와서 떠날 때, 주여 왕이시여 당신의 옷자락이 여기 있습니다. 당신을 죽일 수도 있었지만 죽이지 않았습니다. 라고 말합니다.

그렇지만 사울은 또 다시 다윗을 죽이려고 합니다.

마지막장에서 사울의 두 아들은 전쟁 때 죽습니다. 이 끔찍한 이야기 특히 사울에게서 얻을 수 있는 교훈은 무엇일까요?

사울은 시작은 잘 했지만 끝이 그렇지 않았습니다.

첫째, 처음이 중요하지만 그렇지만 마지막은 더 중요합니다.

사도 바울은 고백합니다. 딤후4:7 “나는 선한 싸움 싸우고 나의 달려갈 길을 마치고 믿음을 지켰으니”라고, 우리는 겸손함과 믿음으고 선한싸움을 끝까지 싸워야 합니다.

둘째, 복수는 나의 일이 아닙니다.

당신에게 적이 있습니까? 우리는 원수가 없었으면 하지만 원수같은? 사람이 있습니다.

고전 12:19 ” 내 사랑하는 자들아 너희가 친히 원수를 갚지 말고 하나님의 진노하심에 맡기라 기록되었으되 원수 갚는 것이 내게 있으니 내가 갚으리라고 주께서 말씀 하시니라. 예수님은 아무런 죄를 짖지 않으시고 죄없이 비난받고 고통받으 실 때에도 예수님의 말씀가운데 속임이 없었습니다.

사무엘은 예수님의 예표입니다. 첫 선지자, 제사장, 마지막 사사로 이스라엘 민족들이 많이 존경했고 하나님의 사람들에게 새로운 시대를 열었습니다.

예수님또한 고후 5:17 ” 그런즉 누구든지 그리스도 안에 있으면 새 피조물이라 이전 것은 지나갔으니 새 것이 되었도다.”

다윗도 예수님의 예표입니다. 기름부은 왕으로 이스라엘 역사상 가장 위대한 왕으로 칭합받습니다. 베들레헴에서 태어났고 양들의 목자였습니다.

예수님또한 베들레헴에서 태어났고 우리 인간들의 목자 되셨습니다. 요10:27 “내 양은 내 음성을 들으며 나는 그들을 알며 그들은 나를 따르느니라.”(백성들을 양으로 표현하시고 예수님은 목자로 표현하셨지요)

다윗의 시 시편23편 1절 ” 여호와는 나의 목자이시니 내게 부족함이 없으리로다” 라고 다윗은 예수님을 목자라고 표현합니다. 신약 마태복음 1:1은 “아브라함과 다윗의 자손 예수그리스도의 계보라”라고 시작됩니다.