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Leviticus: The Book of Worship & Holiness
1:1- 17, 17:11, 20:7,8
The Burnt Offering
1 The LORD called to Moses and spoke to him from the Tent of Meeting. He said, 2 “Speak to the Israelites and say to them: ‘When any of you brings an offering to the LORD, bring as your offering an animal from either the herd or the flock. 3 ” ‘If the offering is a burnt offering from the herd, he is to offer a male without defect. He must present it at the entrance to the Tent of Meeting so that it will be acceptable to the LORD. 4 He is to lay his hand on the head of the burnt offering, and it will be accepted on his behalf to make atonement for him. 5 He is to slaughter the young bull before the LORD, and then Aaron’s sons the priests shall bring the blood and sprinkle it against the altar on all sides at the entrance to the Tent of Meeting. 6 He is to skin the burnt offering and cut it into pieces. 7 The sons of Aaron the priest are to put fire on the altar and arrange wood on the fire. 8 Then Aaron’s sons the priests shall arrange the pieces, including the head and the fat, on the burning wood that is on the altar. 9 He is to wash the inner parts and the legs with water, and the priest is to burn all of it on the altar. It is a burnt offering, an offering made by fire, an aroma pleasing to the LORD.
10 ” ‘If the offering is a burnt offering from the flock, from either the sheep or the goats, he is to offer a male without defect. 11 He is to slaughter it at the north side of the altar before the LORD, and Aaron’s sons the priests shall sprinkle its blood against the altar on all sides. 12 He is to cut it into pieces, and the priest shall arrange them, including the head and the fat, on the burning wood that is on the altar. 13 He is to wash the inner parts and the legs with water, and the priest is to bring all of it and burn it on the altar. It is a burnt offering, an offering made by fire, an aroma pleasing to the LORD.
14 ” ‘If the offering to the LORD is a burnt offering of birds, he is to offer a dove or a young pigeon. 15 The priest shall bring it to the altar, wring off the head and burn it on the altar; its blood shall be drained out on the side of the altar. 16 He is to remove the crop with its contents and throw it to the east side of the altar, where the ashes are. 17 He shall tear it open by the wings, not severing it completely, and then the priest shall burn it on the wood that is on the fire on the altar. It is a burnt offering, an offering made by fire, an aroma pleasing to the LORD.
17:11 For the life of a creature is in the blood, and I have given it to you to make atonement for yourselves on the altar; it is the blood that makes atonement for one’s life.
20:7 ” ‘Consecrate yourselves and be holy, because I am the LORD your God. 8 Keep my decrees and follow them. I am the LORD, who makes you holy.
In chapter 1, the word “priest” = 9 times. So, “Leviticus” = the name of the book, from “Levi” the tribe of priests, the third son of Jacob.
Last Sunday, Exodus – the book of Departure, Freedom, Salvation, Mission. 1 Kings 6:1, Exodus = took place 480 years before the first year of Solomon’s reign in Israel. That year was 966 B.C. So, the Exodus happened 1446 B.C. Yes, this was a historic event.
The book Exodus began in pain and ended in liberty and freedom – moved from the groaning of the people to the glory of God. In our story, if we are really saved and redeemed by the grace of God, our next job is worship – this must be our lifestyle – this is the next style.
Romans 12:1 “Therefore, my brothers, I urge you to offer your bodies as living sacrifices, this is your spiritual act of worship.”
- Exodus = Salvation, Redemption, Mission – deliverance
- Leviticus = Holiness, Worship – dedication, devotion
Last week, Moses always said, “Let my people so SO THAT we may worship the Lord.”
The farewell from pharaoh to Moses, “GO! Up! Worship your Lord.”
So, the first job that all people did when they arrived at Mt. Sinai was to build the Tabernacle (House of Meeting) – the “church”. Exodus ends with this tabernacle filled with the glory of God. Exodus 40:17 “On the first day of the first month of the second year, the tabernacle was set up.” They finished building the tabernacle one year after Exodus.
- Leviticus 1:1 “The Lord called to Moses and spoke to him from the Tent of Meeting…”
- Numbers 1:1 “The Lord spoke to Moses from the Tent of Meeting on the first day of the second month of the second year…”
What can we know from these two stories?
- At the end of Exodus, they finished building the tabernacle. First day, first month, second year.
- Numbers = First day, second month, second year.
From this story, we can know Leviticus = NO moving, travel, geographical journey – they stayed camped at Mt. Sinai for one month and heard – listened to the voice of the Lord. This was a “short, intensive course” from God directly. In Leviticus, we can see 35 times “The Lord spoke…”
Leviticus references (35):
Leviticus 1:1, Leviticus 4:1, Leviticus 5:14, Leviticus 6:1, Leviticus 6:8, Leviticus 6:19, Leviticus 6:24, Leviticus 7:22, Leviticus 7:28, Leviticus 8:1, Leviticus 10:8 (Aaron – the first High Priest), Leviticus 11:1, Leviticus 12:1, Leviticus 13:1, Leviticus 14:1, Leviticus 14:33, Leviticus 15:1, Leviticus 16:1, Leviticus 17:1, Leviticus 18:1, Leviticus 19:1, Leviticus 20:1, Leviticus 21:1, Leviticus 21:16, Leviticus 22:1, Leviticus 22:17, Leviticus 22:26, Leviticus 23:1, Leviticus 23:9, Leviticus 23:23, Leviticus 23:26, Leviticus 23:33, Leviticus 24:1, Leviticus 25:1, Leviticus 27:1, Leviticus 27:34
“These are the commands the Lord gave Moses on Mt. Sinai.”
Leviticus = God’s handbook for Newly Redeemed People –
- how to worship,
- how to serve,
- how to work for him, with him,
- how to obey him.
This all shows the HOLINESS of God. Key verse: 20:7,8 “You should be holy because I’m holy.”
From salvation -> service, deliverance -> devotion.
This is the handbook for the Levitical priesthood.
Let me introduce a summary of Leviticus:
27 chapters, with 2 main sections:
1-17 = Section 1 (sacrifice – how to worship/approach God)
- 1-7: 5 main offerings
- burnt offering – with a bull or sheep or goat without defect – poor people could use male dog or pigeon – should be TOTALLY burned and consumed – this is a voluntary act of worship for unintentional sin in general – expression of devotion, commitment and love – total and complete devotion to God
- grain offering – with grain, fine flour, incense, salt, bread – without yeast or honey – this was joined with burnt offering and fellowship offering – in recognition of God’s goodness and provision
- peace (fellowship) offering – could be done with any animal – with any animal, a sign of thanksgiving and fellowship with God – also fellowship with each other – they ate together
- sin offering – elements were very different – ordained priests for the whole community – bull, leader – male goat, ordinary people – female goat should be given – poor people – dove OK, for VERY poor people – fine flour – this was COMPULSORY – for specific, unintentional sin – forgiveness from sin and cleansing
- guilt offering – given with a ram or lamb (What’s the difference between sin/guilt offering? Guilt = requiring payment for other people – restitution – they must REPAY others 20% of the fine)
18-27 = section 2 (sanctification – holiness, how to walk with God)
- Laws of the priests – for sanctification, consecration, ministry of the priesthood
- chp 11-15 = clean food, unclean food, etc – childbirth, leprosy, etc
- chp 15-17 = laws of national atonement for the Day of Atonement – how to sacrifice to God
- 18-27 = section 2 (sanctification – holiness, how to walk with God)
- 18-20 = Laws of sanctification for people – sexual sin, social order
- 21-22 = Laws of sanctification for priests
- 23-24 = Laws of sanctification in worship – 7 feasts here –
- 25-26 = Laws of Sanctification in Canaan
- 27 = Law of Sanctification through vows
ALL these seven feasts POINT to JESUS
- Feast of Passover
- feast of redemption, salvation – HE is our Passover lamb who takes away the sin of the world (Acts 4:12 “Salvation is found in no one else…”)
- Feast of Unleavened Bread
- they received manna and quail for 40 years in the desert – Jesus said, “I’m the Bread of Life – if you eat this bread, you will live forever.” – He was born in Bethlehem = “The house of Bread”
- Feast of First fruits
- First fruits = Easter (1 Cor 15:27 “Jesus Christ has indeed been raised from the dead as the first fruits of those who have fallen asleep”)
- Feast of Pentecost (”Pente” = 5)
- The HS came down from heaven in the place of Christ on the 50th day after his resurrection – this is the Beginning of the Age of Church for world evangelization
- Feast of Trumpets
- This represents the rapture of the whole church when Jesus returns (1 Thess 4:16, 17 “The Lord Jesus will come down from heaven with a LOUD voice, with a TRUMPET call and the dead in Christ will rise again – and the church will be caught up in the clouds to meet him and live with him forever”)
- Feast of the Day of Atonement
- The HIGHEST of the Holy Days – this will be fulfilled (how? when?) when Jesus returns
- Feast of the Tabernacle
- Heaven – Jesus’ shelter in the world to come
- 1-3 = spring feasts (March, April)
- 4 = summer feast (May/June)
- 5-7 = fall feasts (Sept/Oct)
- 25-26 = Laws of Sanctification in Canaan
- 27 = Law of Sanctification through vows
Question: (serious and practical question and practical lesson) yes, even though they were redeemed and saved by the grace of God, still, were unholy and sinful – God is absolutely totally holy and righteous (Habakkuk “God is too holy to SEE unholy”)
Question: How can an unholy person acceptably approach to an absolutely holy God and remain in continued fellowship and relationship with that God?
This is the most important question that the book of Leviticus gives us.
Answer: (always the SAME – OT and NT) – offering, blood sacrifice, by the help of the mediator (in this story – priest (Jesus is our High Priest as well))
That’s why the whole book of Leviticus is full of the words “priest, offerings, sacrifice” – it has much MORE of these books than any other.
- NIV: “priest” = 149, “offerings” = 210, “sacrifice” = 28
- KJV: “priest” = 155, “sacrifice” = 43ish
In our story, our Lord Christ is:
- our perfect and eternal High Priest AND
- our perfect and eternal blood sacrifice
In world history, all priests are just copies and shadows of the TRUE, eternal High Priest, – this is why through the mediation of Jesus, we can worship God.
Comparison and contrast: human/Jesus
- Man: changeable (died)
- vs. Jesus: unchanging (always alive, always the same)
- Man: offer for himself first and then others second (he is unholy)
- vs. Jesus who is sinless
- Man: enter the Holy of Holies ONCE every year
- vs. Jesus offered ONCE for ALL forEVER “once for all, once for all, once for all”
- Man: offered the blood of animals
- vs. Jesus: the blood of a man – his own blood – the most precious, most expensive, purest blood
- Man: did not die for others
- vs. Jesus died for ALL others
- Man: could not interceded for us in heaven
- vs. Jesus: STILL interceding for us NOW in heaven Romans 8:~ “Jesus who was crucified and raised for us – is sitting at the right hand of God and is interceding for us”
- Man: came from earth
- vs. Jesus came from heaven
- Man: showed the way to the presence of God through the gate of the tabernacle through the curtain
- vs. Jesus who IS the GATE, he IS the WAY – this is WHY when he was crucified on the cross, the curtain was torn in half from top to bottom immediately
That’s why we are called the “body of Christ” and the head of the church is Jesus Christ.
- 1 Timothy: “There is only one God and ONE mediator between God and man.”
- Heb 9:22 “Without shedding the blood, there is no forgiveness – no remission of sins.”
- 1 John 1:5 “The blood of Christ purifies us”
- “He is the propitiation for our sins – and for the sins of the whole world.”
Let me close with one more story:
New Testament – Hebrews = a direct commentary on Leviticus – it is “today’s Leviticus” – it ALSO contains “priest, offering, sacrifice” more than ANY other book in the NT:
“Jesus is the same yesterday, today, and forever” – we are very familiar with this – but from this context, narrowly speaking, it means Jesus is the same yesterday, today, and forever in BECOMING our High Priest in the presence of God
(Think on the contrast btwn human high priests and Jesus)
- Hebrews 2:17-18 “For this reason, he had to be made like his brothers in every way in order that he might become a merciful and faithful high priest in service to God and he might make atonement for sins in from of God….”
- Hebrews 4:14-16 “Therefore, since we have a great High Priest who has gone through the heavens, let us hold firmly to the faith we confess, for we do not have a High Priest who is unable to sympathize with our weaknesses – for he was tempted in every way as we are…”
- Hebrews 7:23-27 “Now, there have been many of those priests since death prevented them from continuing in office – but Jesus lives forever, for he has an eternal priesthood – so he is able to perfectly save sinners… He does not need to offer sacrifices day after day. He sacrificed for their sins ONCE FOR ALL when he offered himself.”
- Hebrews 8:1-2 “The point is this, we do have such a high priest who set down from the throne in heaven – the tabernacle set up by the Lord in heaven, not by men.”
- Hebrews 9:11-15 “When Christ came as the High Priest, he went through the tabernacle that is not man-made. He entered the most holy place ONCE FOR ALL by his own blood – having gained redemption. How much more then will the blood of Christ, cleanse our consciences from acts that lead to death so that we may serve God – therefore, Christ is a mediator between God and man – the author of a NEW covenant.”
- Hebrews 9:24-26 “For Christ did not enter a man-made sanctuary that was only a copy of the true one. Nor did he enter heaven to offer himself again and again to offer with blood that was not his own – but now he has appeared ONCE FOR ALL to do away with sin.”
- Hebrews 10:10-12 “And by that will we have been made holy through the sacrifice of the body of Jesus Christ ONCE FOR ALL – day after day the priests offer sacrifices which can NEVER take away sins – but when THIS priest sacrificed ONCE he sat down at the right hand of God.”
- Hebrews 13:11,12,15 “The high priest carries the blood of animals into the most holy place as a sin offering, but the bodies are burned outside the city gate – likewise, Jesus… Through Jesus, let us continually offer a sacrifice of praise…”
“Therefore, brothers, I urge you to offer your bodies as living sacrifices, holy and pleasing to God, for this is your spiritual act of worship.”
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레위기 : 예배(worship)와 거룩의 책
레위기 1:1-17, 17:11, 20:7,8
- 1:1 여호와께서 회막에서 모세를 부르시고 그에게 일러 가라사대
- 17:11 육체의 생명은 피에 있음이라 내가 이 피를 너희에게 주어 단에 뿌려 너희의 생명을 위하여 속하게 하였나니 생명이 피에 있으므로 피가 죄를 속하였느니라.
- 20:7,8 너희는 스스로 께끗케 하여 거룩하게 할찌어다 나는 너희 하나님 여호와니라. 너희는 내 규례를 지켜 행하라 나는 너희를 거룩케 하는 여호와니라.
레위기 1장을 보면 제사장이라는 말이 9번이나 나옵니다.
레위기는 야곱의 아들중 3째인 아론의 후예들로 제사장의 역할을 맞은 레위족을 말합니다.
출애굽이 된지 480년만에 솔로몬의 왕국이 시작되었습니다.(966B.C.) 출애굽은 1466B.C.에 일어난 것이구요.
출애굽은 고통으로 시작해서 자유로 끝났습니다.
사람들의 애통에서 하나님의 영광이 된 사건입니다.
- 출애굽기 : 구원 , 미션, 해방
- 레위기 : 거룩, 헌신
가서 하나님을 경배하라 그래서 출애굽이후 모든 사람들이
시내 산에서 하나님이 주신 말씀을 듣고 지켜 행하게 되었습니다.
민수기 1:1보면 ‘이스라엘 자손이 애굽 땅에서 나온지 제이년 이월 일일’ 인것을 보면 레위기는 1년이 채 안되는 시간동안 쓰여졌으며 그 기간동안 회막이 지어졌다는 것을 알 수 있습니다. 레위기 내에서는 지리적인 이동이 전혀 없습니다.
시내 산에서 한달간 머물면서 하나님의 말씀을 들은 것입니다. 레위기 6장 1,8,24 보면 ‘여호와께서 모세에게 일러 가라사대’ 라고 나오듯이 하나님이 간결하고 집중적인 메세지를 직접주신 것입니다.
레위기에서 35번이나 ‘여호와께서 말씁하시다~’가 나옵니다. 마지막 27:34 ‘이상은 여호와께서 시내 산에서 이스라엘 자손을 위하여 모세에게 명하신 계명이니라.’고 마치게 됩니다.
레위기를 이제 막 구원받은 사람들을 위한 하나님의 핸드북(수기책)입니다. 어떻게 하나님께 예배하는지 지시를 주신 것입니다. 구원에서 예배와 해방 그리고 헌신을 위한 제사장의 책입니다.
레위기는 크게 2부분으로 나뉩니다.
1-17장은 어떻게 하나님을 예배하는지 그리고 다가가는지
먼저 1-7장은 5가지 주요한 예물 : 번제, 소제, 화목제,속죄제,속건제입니다.
- 번제 : 흠없는 소와 양 또는 염소(가난한 사람들은 비둘기)를 완전히 태우도록 했습니다
- 소제 : 곡식, 밀가루, 소금 (꿀이나 이스트가 가미되지 않은 것들)
- 화목제 : 흠없는 수컷이나 암컷 소나 양, 염소
- 속죄제 (The Sin offering): 죄를 지었을 때 드리는 예물
- 속건제(The Guilt offering) : 부지중에 지은 죄를 위한 예물
두번째 부분은 18-27장으로 어떻게 하나님과 동행하는 지 (how to walk with God)입니다.
- 18-20은 성화, 성적 사회적 질서
- 21-22은 제사장의 성화법
- 23-24은 7가지 절기(feasts) 여기서 절기는 예수님을 가르킵니다.
- 1-3 : 봄 절기 (3월, 4월)
- 4 : 여름 절기 (5월, 6월)
- 5-7 : 가을 절기 (9월, 10월)
- 유월절 : 행4:12 ‘다른 이로서는 구원을 얻을 수 없나니 천하 인간에 구원을 얻을 만한 다른 이름을 우리에게 주신 일이 없음이니라 하였더라.’
- 무교절 : 40년동안 만나와 메추라기를 먹은 것을 기념…
질문이 있습니다. 이스라엘 사람들이 구원을 받았지만 그들은 하나님의 은혜로 구원을 받았습니다. 그러면 절대적으로 거룩하시고 의로운 하나님과 어떻게 거룩하지 못하고 죄성많은 인간이 동행할 수 있을까요?
하박국에보면 하나님은 거룩하지 못한것을 보기에 너무 거룩하시다고 나와있습니다.
그렇은 피때문입니다. 레위기에는 제사장이란 말이 155번 희생이란 말이 43번 나옵니다. 예수님은 문이고 길이십니다. (디모데 전서) 히9:22 율법을 좇아 거의 모든 물건이 피로써 정결케 되나니 피 흘림이 없은즉 사함이 없느니라. 요일 1:5 우리가 저에게서 듣고 너희에게 전하는 소식이 이것이니 곧 하나님은 빛이시라 그에게는 어두움이 조금도 없으시니라.
히브루서는 우리시대의 레위기입니다. 그래서 제사장 , 제사, 제물이란 말이 신약의 다른 어떤 책보다 많이 나옵니다. 예수님이 우리의 제사장 되십니다.
히2:17-18 ‘그러므로 저가 범사에 형제들과 같이 되심이 마땅하도다 이는 하나님의 일에 자비하고 충성된 대제사장이 되어 백성의 죄를 구속하려 하심이라’ ‘자기가 시험을 받아 고난을 당하셨은즉 시험받는 자들을 능히 도우시느니라’
- 첫째, 인간제사장은 죽기때문에 항상 다른 사람으로 변해야 합니다. 그러나 우리의 제사장은 언제나 같고 살아계십니다.
- 둘째, 인간제사장은 자신은 위해서도 제사를 지내야 했지만 죄가 없으시고 신이신 예수님은 그럴 필요가 없으십니다.
- 셋째, 인간제사장은 지성소에 일년에 한번 들어가야 했지만 예수님은 한번으로 모든 죄를 사하셨습니다.
- 넷째, 인간제사장은 동물의 피를 사용했지만 예수님은 가장 귀하고 비싼 제사장의 피를 예물로 드렸습니다.
롬 8:34 ‘누가 우리를 정죄하리요 죽으실 뿐 아니라 다시 살아나신 이는 그리스도 예수시니 그는 하나님 우편에 계신자요 우리를 위하여 간구하시는 자니라’
히: 4:14-16, 7:23-27, 8:1-2, 9:11-15, 9:24-26, 10:10-12, 13:11, 12, 15 보면, 그리스께서 우리의 대 제사장이 되셔서 우리를 위해 중보하시고 예수님의 피로서 우리를 정결케 하심이 나와 있습니다.
그러므로 삶을 거룩한 산 제사로 드리시기 바랍니다.